Drive Error Checking in Windows 10  

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    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10

    How to Check a Drive for Errors in Windows 10
    Published by Category: Performance & Maintenance
    05 Nov 2020
    Designer Media Ltd



    How to Check a Drive for Errors in Windows 10


    Checking your drives for errors every once in a while can help fix some performance issues. Drive errors can usually be caused by bad sectors, improper shutdowns, bad software, corruption, physical damage, etc...

    This tutorial will show you different ways on how to run a scan to check a hard disk drive (HDD or SSD) for errors in Windows 10.

    You must be signed in as an administrator to be able to run a scan to check a drive for errors.

    You do not need to manually check drives using ReFS (Resilient File System) for errors. ReFS includes automatic drive error checking and correction.
    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-refs_error_checking.png

    You can press the Ctrl + C keys to pause chkdsk if needed, but it is recommended to allow chkdsk to finish.



    Contents

    • Option One: To Check Drive Status in Security and Maintenance
    • Option Two: To Check Drive for Errors using Drive Tools in Properties
    • Option Three: To Check Drive for Errors using "chkdsk" in Command Prompt
    • Option Four: To Check Drive for Errors using "Repair-Volume" in PowerShell



    EXAMPLE: Disk Checking at boot if scheduled for offline scan
    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-offline_chkdsk-2.png Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-offline_chkdsk-3.png






    OPTION ONE

    To Check Drive Status in Security and Maintenance


    1 Open the Control Panel (icons view), and click/tap on the Security and Maintenance icon.

    2 Expand open Maintenance, and look under Drive status to see the current health status of your drives. If any issues were found, they would be listed here with an option to scan the drive. (see screenshot below)

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-drive_status.png






    OPTION TWO

    To Check Drive for Errors using Drive Tools in Properties


    1 Open This PC in File Explorer (Win+E).

    2 Right click or press and hold on a hard disk drive (HDD or SSD) you want to scan, and click/tap on Properties. (see screenshot below)

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-error_checking_properties_tools-1.png

    3 Click/tap on the Tools tab, and click/tap on the Check button under the top Error checking section. (see screenshot below)

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-error_checking_properties_tools-2.png

    4 You can now Scan drive (if wanted) or Repair drive (if errors found). (see screenshots below)

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-error_checking_properties_tools-3.png
    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-repair_this_drive.jpg

    5 The drive will now be scanned to check for errors. (see screenshot below)

    Depending on the size of your drive, this might take several minutes. For best results, don't use your computer for any other tasks while it is checking for errors.

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-error_checking_properties_tools-4.png

    6 When the scan has finished, you can click tap on the Show Details link to see the Chkdsk log in Event Viewer. Click/tap on Close when finished. (see screenshot below)

    If errors are found, then you may be prompted to fix them or schedule to scan and fix the drive at boot on the next restart.

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-error_checking_properties_tools-5.png

    7 You can now close the drive Properties window if you like. (see screenshot below step 3)






    OPTION THREE

    To Check Drive for Errors using "chkdsk" in Command Prompt


    1 Open an elevated command prompt or a command prompt at boot.

    2 In the command prompt, type the following command below followed by one or more switches that you would like to use with a space between each switch, and press Enter. (see screenshot below)

    chkdsk <drive letter>: <switches>

    If you need any help with these commands, then please feel free to post a reply asking what you need help with.

    For more chkdsk command usage and details, see: chkdsk | Microsoft Docs

    Substitute <drive letter> with the actual drive letter (ex: C) you want to scan to check for errors. If you don't specify a drive letter (volume), then the command will be performed on the Windows volume by default.

    Substitute <switches> with a switch you want to use below. Include a space between each switch you want to use.

    For example:

    (Scan and fix C: drive for error checking)
    chkdsk C: /f

    OR

    (Perform an offline scan and fix of C: drive for error checking
    chkdsk C: /f /offlinescanandfix

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-chkdsk_command.png
    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-offline_chkdsk-1.png






    OPTION FOUR

    To Check Drive for Errors using "Repair-Volume" in PowerShell


    For more Repair-Volume command usage and details, see: Repair-Volume | Microsoft Docs


    1 Open an elevated PowerShell.

    2 Do step 3 (repair), step 4 (offline), step 5 (scan), step 6 (spotfix) below for [/NUM]which Repair-Volume command you want to use.


    3 To Scan and Repair Drive

    This is the most commonly used command to scan and repair the drive (equivalent to chkdsk).

    A) Type the command below into PowerShell, press Enter, and go to step 7 below.

    Repair-Volume -DriveLetter <drive letter>

    Substitute <drive letter> in the command above with the actual drive letter you want.

    For example: Repair-Volume -DriveLetter C

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-powershell_repair-volume.png


    4 To Perform "OfflineScanAndFix" on Drive

    OfflineScanAndFix takes the volume offline to scan the volume and fix any errors found (equivalent to chkdsk /f).

    A) Type the command below into PowerShell, press Enter, and go to step 7 below.

    Repair-Volume -DriveLetter <drive letter> -OfflineScanAndFix

    Substitute <drive letter> in the command above with the actual drive letter you want.

    For example: Repair-Volume -DriveLetter C -OfflineScanAndFix

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-powershell_repair-volume_offlinescanandfix.png


    5 To Only Perform a Quick "Scan" of Drive

    Scan scans the volume without attempting to repair it; all detected corruptions are added to the $corrupt system file (equivalent to chkdsk /scan).

    A) Type the command below into PowerShell, press Enter, and go to step 7 below.

    Repair-Volume -DriveLetter <drive letter> -Scan

    Substitute <drive letter> in the command above with the actual drive letter you want.

    For example: Repair-Volume -DriveLetter C -Scan

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-powershell_repair-volume_scan.png


    6 To Perform a "SpotFix" on Drive

    SpotFix takes the volume briefly offline and then fixes only issues that are logged in the $corrupt file (equivalent to chkdsk /spotfix).

    A) Type the command below into PowerShell, press Enter, and go to step 7 below.

    Repair-Volume -DriveLetter <drive letter> -SpotFix

    Substitute <drive letter> in the command above with the actual drive letter you want.

    For example: Repair-Volume -DriveLetter C -SpotFix

    Drive Error Checking in Windows 10-powershell_repair-volume_spotfix.png


    7 When finished, you can close PowerShell if you like.


    That's it,
    Shawn



  1. davidhk's Avatar
    Posts : 5,440
    windows 10 Pro ver 21H2 build 19044.1348
       #1

    I never realized there were so many options.
    Thank you.
    Keeping that as a desktop shortcut.
      My Computer

  2. Brink's Avatar
    Posts : 60,487
    64-bit Windows 11 Pro for Workstations
    Thread Starter
       #2

    You're most welcome David. :)
      My Computers

  3. jdUnionngarden's Avatar
    Posts : 335
    Windows 10 Professional x64, 21H1.19043.1083
       #3

    Windows told me one of my secondary 1 TB HDDs is about to fail. I backed up the one of the 2 partitions that's most important.
    What would be the easiest command line syntax to check and fix the entire 2 partitions? In this case E: & Z: (Each 500 GB)
    Thanks
    /jdU
      My Computer

  4. essenbe's Avatar
    Posts : 12,698
    Windows 11 Pro
       #4

    I think you will need to run them one at a time. From an elevated command prompt (right click the start falg and select command prompt (Admin)) run chkdsk E: /f when that is complete run chkdsk Z: /f
      My Computer

  5. jdUnionngarden's Avatar
    Posts : 335
    Windows 10 Professional x64, 21H1.19043.1083
       #5

    Easy enough!
    Thanks essenbe!
    /jdU
      My Computer

  6. jdUnionngarden's Avatar
    Posts : 335
    Windows 10 Professional x64, 21H1.19043.1083
       #6

    Further question: Here's the actual possible error report:
    ==
    "Windows Disk Diagnostic detected a S.M.A.R.T. fault on disk Hitachi HDS721010DLE630 (volumes E:\;Z:\). This disk might fail; back up your computer now. All data on the hard disk, including files, documents, pictures, programs, and settings might be lost if your hard disk fails. To determine if the hard disk needs to be repaired or replaced, contact the manufacturer of your computer. If you can't back up (for example, you have no CDs or other backup media), you should shut down your computer and restart when you have backup media available. In the meantime, do not save any critical files to this disk."
    ==
    This is a 4 year old 1TB HDD; I replaced the other identical one ~2 years ago out of an abundance of caution when I received the same error. It was my Primary drive. My local IT guy told me the use P/N: (?) Manufacturer->WD saying it was better quality than Hitachi.

    Question: I ran the backup as suggest by the warning, a Checkdisk came back negative (i.e. All OK); all seems OK with the drive 2 days later and ... I'm leaning toward waiting to see if I get another warning.
    -
    Any comments?

    Appreciation!
    /jdU
      My Computer

  7. Brink's Avatar
    Posts : 60,487
    64-bit Windows 11 Pro for Workstations
    Thread Starter
       #7

    Hello jdU, :)

    You might also run the HGST Windows Drive Fitness Test (WinDFT) on your Hitachi hard drive to see if it passes without any errors.

    Downloads | HGST
      My Computers

  8. jdUnionngarden's Avatar
    Posts : 335
    Windows 10 Professional x64, 21H1.19043.1083
       #8

    Great!
    Thanks very much Brink!
    /jdU
      My Computer

  9. Brink's Avatar
    Posts : 60,487
    64-bit Windows 11 Pro for Workstations
    Thread Starter
       #9

    You're most welcome.
      My Computers


 

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