I've just tried connecting a record player that supports USB output to a PC in order to listen to music over bluetooth headphones, and have run into a strange problem that I can't isolate to either the record player-laptop interface or my headphones-laptop bluetooth connection.

I'm able to listen to the record over my laptop built-in speakers, which took some configuring in the Sound Control Panel (settings listed below). I didn't need to download a driver; the Audio Technica website said none was needed and since I can listen over the laptop speakers this seems correct.

However, when I connect my headphones to my laptop over bluetooth, I can't hear any music. I can however hear the usual Windows sound effects of clicking on volume sliders, so I know the bluetooth connection is fine. And I can play back sound files on my laptop and listen on my headphones fine.

So I'm not sure how to troubleshoot or isolate the issue, since the record -> laptop and laptop -> headphones interfaces seem to be individually OK. But for some reason I can't hear the record over the headphones.

Sound Control Panel Settings:
Playback: Headphones as only default
Recording: USB audio CODEC as default
USB audio CODEC -> Properties -> Listen: Checked the 'Listen to this Device' box

Some of my other details are below:
Operating System: Windows 10 Home ver 1909
Record Player: Audio Technica AT-LP120XUSB
Headphones: Beats Studio 3