Windows 10: Question about windows checkdisk

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  1.    02 Apr 2018 #11

    zbook said: View Post
    There is an operating system and there is a drive file system.
    Each one has methods to test and fix.

    Ubuntu/Linux can be installed on a drive.
    A method is needed to fix each operating system installed on a drive.
    So basically it scans the windows installation files, and if it finds they are corrupt, it will try to fix them?
      My ComputerSystem Spec


  2. Posts : 18,582
    windows 10 professional version 1607 build 14393.969 64 bit
       02 Apr 2018 #12

    These are examples of chkdsk scans that can be done on line without locking the drive.
    There are different depths to find problems and fix them.
    The scan when the drive is locked is a deeper scan and is a deeper fix.




    Both of these were on line scans.
    The first scan is normal. The second scan is abnormal.
    The problems found by the second scan require an offline fix with spotfix.
    To make a deeper fix a chdsk /r scan can be performed.
    The spotfix is likely to take < 5 - 10 minutes whereas the chkdsk /r is likely to take 4 or more hours.

    The duration of time to run chkdsk /r depends on these factors and probably more factors:
    a) the size of the drive
    b) the problems found on the drive
    c) the amount of free space on the drive


    When you view the chkdsk report you can see that the term that it uses in file structure.
    The operating system can be impacted by a file that is on a problematic section of the drive.
    Alternatively the operating system can become corrupt and have a normal drive file structure.
    And you can see that fixing the drive file system can cause operating system failure if a critical file is damaged by a fix without restoring the file.
    To get all of the details as to what is found and what is fixed you can add the v switch.
    To view the chkdsk report you can view the report in the event viewer:
    Read Chkdsk Log in Event Viewer in Windows 10 Windows 10 Tutorials


    Code:
    C:\Windows\system32>chkdsk /scan
    The type of the file system is NTFS.
    
    
    Stage 1: Examining basic file system structure ...
    513280 file records processed.
    File verification completed.
    12736 large file records processed.
    0 bad file records processed.
    
    
    Stage 2: Examining file name linkage ...
    637032 index entries processed.
    Index verification completed.
    0 unindexed files scanned.
    0 unindexed files recovered to lost and found.
    
    
    Stage 3: Examining security descriptors ...
    Security descriptor verification completed.
    61877 data files processed.
    CHKDSK is verifying Usn Journal...
    35579568 USN bytes processed.
    Usn Journal verification completed.
    
    
    Windows has scanned the file system and found no problems.
    No further action is required.
    
    
    731992063 KB total disk space.
    445468612 KB in 315509 files.
    197260 KB in 61878 indexes.
    0 KB in bad sectors.
    640623 KB in use by the system.
    65536 KB occupied by the log file.
    285685568 KB available on disk.
    
    
    4096 bytes in each allocation unit.
    182998015 total allocation units on disk.
    71421392 allocation units available on disk.
    
    
    C:\Windows\system32>

    Code:
    C:\Windows\system32>chkdsk /scan
    The type of the file system is NTFS.
    
    
    Stage 1: Examining basic file system structure ...
    Found corrupt basic file structure for "\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-c..sktop.appxmain.root_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.15063.909_none_7056d5c014a9e7ca\Cortana.Internal.Search .winmd <0x1,0x1402c>"
    ... queued for offline repair.
    Found corrupt basic file structure for "\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-c..sktop.appxmain.root_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.15063.909_none_7056d5c014a9e7ca\Cortana.SPA.winmd <0x1,0x14035>"
    ... queued for offline repair.
    Found corrupt basic file structure for "\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-c..sktop.appxmain.root_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.15063.909_none_7056d5c014a9e7ca\Cortana.Tips.winmd <0x1,0x14038>"
    ... queued for offline repair.
    513280 file records processed.
    File verification completed.
    12793 large file records processed.
    0 bad file records processed.
    
    
    Stage 2: Examining file name linkage ...
    Found an unneeded link ($FILE_NAME: "Cortana.Internal.Search.winmd") in index "$I30" of directory "\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-c..sktop.appxmain.root_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.15063.966_none_7012f55a14dd436b <0x29,0x50091>"
    ... queued for offline repair.
    Found an unneeded link ($FILE_NAME: "Cortana.SPA.winmd") in index "$I30" of directory "\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-c..sktop.appxmain.root_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.15063.966_none_7012f55a14dd436b <0x29,0x50091>"
    ... queued for offline repair.
    Found an unneeded link ($FILE_NAME: "Cortana.Tips.winmd") in index "$I30" of directory "\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-c..sktop.appxmain.root_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.15063.966_none_7012f55a14dd436b <0x29,0x50091>"
    ... queued for offline repair.
    637180 index entries processed.
    Index verification completed.
    0 unindexed files scanned.
    0 unindexed files recovered to lost and found.
    
    
    Stage 3: Examining security descriptors ...
    Security descriptor verification completed.
    61951 data files processed.
    CHKDSK is verifying Usn Journal...
    Usn Journal verification completed.
    Windows has found problems that must be fixed offline.
    Please run "chkdsk /spotfix" to fix the issues.
    
    
    731992063 KB total disk space.
    459915268 KB in 309150 files.
    193244 KB in 61952 indexes.
    0 KB in bad sectors.
    605819 KB in use by the system.
    65536 KB occupied by the log file.
    271277732 KB available on disk.
    
    
    4096 bytes in each allocation unit.
    182998015 total allocation units on disk.
    67819433 allocation units available on disk.
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  3.    02 Apr 2018 #13

    It scans the file system, meaning the hard drive's formatting. If your C drive is formatted to NTFS, it checks the indexing, etc to make sure the file system is good. It can detect physical errors on the drive, but no software can fix those.

    The file system is what the operating system gets installed on top of. The command SFC will go through Windows' system files and determine if any are missing or corrupt, then can repair them.
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  4.    03 Apr 2018 #14

    zbook said: View Post
    These are examples of chkdsk scans that can be done on line without locking the drive.
    There are different depths to find problems and fix them.
    The scan when the drive is locked is a deeper scan and is a deeper fix.
    Sorry but this doesn't help me much, if anything it makes me a bit more confused.

    DeaconFrost said: View Post
    It scans the file system, meaning the hard drive's formatting. If your C drive is formatted to NTFS, it checks the indexing, etc to make sure the file system is good. It can detect physical errors on the drive, but no software can fix those.

    The file system is what the operating system gets installed on top of. The command SFC will go through Windows' system files and determine if any are missing or corrupt, then can repair them.
    I guess this makes sense. So chkdsk and sfc basically does the same thing?
      My ComputerSystem Spec


  5. Posts : 18,582
    windows 10 professional version 1607 build 14393.969 64 bit
       03 Apr 2018 #15

    This links may be useful to understand the drive file system:
    What Is a File System, and Why Are There So Many of Them?
    chkdsk | Microsoft Docs

    These links may be useful to understand the system files:
    sfc | Microsoft Docs
    How to Repair Corrupted Windows System Files with the SFC and DISM Commands
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  6.    03 Apr 2018 #16

    Was thinking more about a simple explanation. So far i get that sfc scans the file system, and chkdsk does (mostly?) the same thing.
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  7.    03 Apr 2018 #17

    You need to understand that the file system is not the same thing as the system files. A file system is the way any hard drive is formatted, NTFS, FAT32, etc. Chkdsk makes sure the file system is good. That's the foundation. If the file system is corrupt, then your system files that reside on the file system will likely be bad as well. SFC stands for system file checker. That verifies your Windows system files are intact.

    They are two separate entities, and both need to be in good shape if you want a stable system.
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  8.    03 Apr 2018 #18

    Let me try something simple and (hopefully) straightforward: chkdsk checks disk structures, such as how file entries appear in the master file table, whether cluster chains are intact and working, and if any orphaned files appear on the disk; sfc checks system file contents and compares their calculated hash values to stored, known good values for those files. Thus, the one will detect any and all files that suffer from structural defects (chkdsk) while the other concentrates on OS system files to make sure their content is current and correct (sfc).
    HTH. If it doesn't work for you, perhaps someone else in the community can try to explain the difference?
    --Ed--
      My ComputersSystem Spec

  9.    03 Apr 2018 #19

    DeaconFrost said: View Post
    You need to understand that the file system is not the same thing as the system files. A file system is the way any hard drive is formatted, NTFS, FAT32, etc. Chkdsk makes sure the file system is good. That's the foundation. If the file system is corrupt, then your system files that reside on the file system will likely be bad as well. SFC stands for system file checker. That verifies your Windows system files are intact.
    So basically chkdsk fixes the file system, and sfc fixes the system files?

    P.S do i need to type chkdsk /x /r /f to do a complete scan and repair?
      My ComputerSystem Spec


  10. Posts : 18,582
    windows 10 professional version 1607 build 14393.969 64 bit
       03 Apr 2018 #20

    To scan the C drive or data partition you can type: chkdsk /r to fix and restore the drive file system.
    The other switches are implied or redundant. It is done to remember the various switches.
    So you can also type: chkdsk /x /f /r
    This is not a complete scan of the disk but is a complete scan of the C drive.
    The command may take many hours and is best accomplished overnight.
    The next day the results can be found in the event viewer using the information in this link:
    Read Chkdsk Log in Event Viewer in Windows 10 Windows 10 Tutorials
      My ComputerSystem Spec


 
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