Forget Outlook connector. It was an early attempt to do some of what setting up your email account as EAS now does - allowing you to view & work with other online account folders [calendar, email, contacts].

If your email settings [except that TLS thing] match mine then I do not believe email settings are causing your problem.

Suggestion 1 - Set up a new account 'normally', automatically in Outlook so the wizard takes over and sets it up as EAS/Exchange.

Suggestion 2 - Create another [local] user account for test purposes. Set up its Outlook email to see if it works.

Suggestion 3 - Create another non-MS online account such as GMail. Set that up in Outlook to see if it works.
Read Gmail messages on other email clients using POP - Gmail Help
GMail pop settings [my post #4]- TenForums
Enabling POP - Gmail Help

Use IMAP to check Gmail on other email clients using IMAP- Gmail Help
Set up Gmail with Outlook, Apple Mail, or other mail clients - IMAP - Gmail Help

POP and IMAP email settings for Outlook - Office Support