Just suffered from the same problem and after some fiddling resolved it - hopefully this will work for you.
Been running windows 10 from an SSD for a while - in a multi-drive system. An old HD started to give errors so I removed it and replaced and then the problems started.
Windows failed to boot (cannot find necessary device)
Steps to resolve.
Created a repair disk on a second pc and booted into repair console.
Advanced - repair startup. (Didn't work but worth a try)
Advanced - cmd prompt.
Used diskpart to set ssd as active
You might need different disk / partition. (Still no joy at this point)
set disk 1
set partition 1
Back to cmd prompt in repair
Again still no go.
Tried to used the reinstall option - but didn't work 'disk locked'....
I also attempted to use BCDEDIT to repair the BCD file - but still no good
Finally got the show on the road again - with a little tidying to remove references to the old drive - all was still in place....
BCDBOOT c:\Windows /s c: