Badges are given when a user reaches a certain level of reputation and also meets the minimum requirements posted below,
The maximum amount of badges a user can have at one time is 3.
Junior Member - 0...
How to Hide or Show Badges on Taskbar Buttons in Windows 10
Starting with Windows 10 Insider Preview Build 14328, you will now see badges appearing on UWP (Universal Windows Platform) apps on the taskbar in addition to their Live Tiles on Start...
Source: Introducing Microsoft badges | Microsoft Learning
Taskbar Notifications Badges Are Coming To Windows Universal App
During a session at Build 2016, Microsoft revealed new features coming to Windows 10 via the upcoming Anniversary Update — chasable live tiles, adaptive notifications, an improved...