I recently did an upgrade install from my Win7 desktop to Windows 10, and I've been having this issue since. Right near the end of when the computer is finished starting up (a couple minutes after the desktop appears) the desktop and taskbar turn to black. I do not get an "XXX has stopped working" message. Starting the taskbar via Ctrl+Shift+Esc and using File>Run to start explorer.exe fixes it for anywhere from 30 or so seconds to not at all. I booted my computer into safe mode (with networking) and the problem persisted.

On a possibly related note, if I try to go into control panel it just shows for about half a second before closing itself.
I can use programs like Skype, Chrome, Steam and the explorer file browser fine, but the taskbar and desktop are just non-existant.