Probably an extreme option, but it might get you up and running
- swap out existing drive for a new blank one (that will keep the old OS and data intact)
- download and (re-)install a clean version of Windows 10
- during the installation, don't use your license key (option = "I don't have one") and don't connect to the internet during installation (you will be asked twice, say no both times) (Note this step is my own personal choice, avoids having to use a Microsoft account)
- when finished, run update until fully complete. Don't install any proprietary drivers until Windows 10 updates are exhausted.

If at any stage you need your old data/programs, just swap out the drives until you can come back to the new process.

This will also give you a comparison option to see whether it's software (existing OS/drivers/etc) or hardware (problem still persists with new installation)