I've kinda fixed my issue, but it's not the correct fix. I would appreciate some insight on why the following hack works. Thank you

The problem is we log into the domain and each new user must apply the fix (can't get it to work for computer only user) which is not going to work for us.

I found that if you copy the settings.dat file from the C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Packages\Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe\Settings folder, to the same folder in the local user profile folder that Edge works.
Even if you remove that file from the current user folder it will still work, which doesn't make sense.

I've tried the powershell scripts that delete the folder / edge and recreate it, but that didn't work for me.

The other issue we have is, we use Respondus and it will not launch either unless (even though the company says that it uses Chrome as the default browser) Edge is working.

To summarize:
1. We are a lab environment that has users that log into the domain
2. The fix only works on the current domain user
3. Every time a new user logs in, the "fix" has to be applied - we're talking thousands of students
4. It worked with the previous version of Windows - 1607