Angels have the Phone Box
Hmmm....would you please try changing the HTTP and HTTPS protocols to Edge, rebooting, and see if a link in an email opens in Edge?
If still not working, you could try a repair of Office:
right-click Start, select Control Panel>Programs and Features>Uninstall or Change a Program
Highlight Microsoft Office, then above the window select Change>Quick Repair. This repair option is fast, and may do nothing. The other one, Online Repair, is almost a fresh install, and will require you to re-activate (using your MS Account login or keycode).
Also, running sfc /scannow might help if some of your system files are corrupt. If corrupt files are found, the system needs to be rebooted, and the scan run again, sometimes 3x with reboots in-between, until you get the "all clear".
Failing these options, you could try uninstalling the offending updates, and see if the problem is resolved. If so, download them for off-line install. Perhaps they (or one of them) didn't install correctly? If you need to try this, I'll need the offending KB numbers to look up the downloads for you.