So there's no on-off switch for this category of data collection. Instead, Windows 10 has three telemetry settings: Basic, Enhanced, and Full. Here's what each of the three settings does:
Basic. This level includes information about security settings, quality-related info (such as crashes and hangs), and application compatibility. Microsoft considers this information essential for maintaining and improving the quality of Windows 10. It contains only anonymous identifiers and can't be used to identify an individual device or person.
Enhanced. This level includes the Basic information and adds details about how Windows and Windows apps are used, how they perform, and advanced reliability info.
Full. This setting, which is the default for Windows 10, includes all information from the previous levels, plus "additional details necessary to identify and help to fix problems." Presumably, this category includes error reports and mini-dump files after serious crashes.
Look, the only "off switch" that works on modern computing devices is disconnecting from the Internet completely. Any device has to communicate with external servers to look up IP addresses, to receive updates, to synchronize data and settings with cloud services, to send and receive email, to browse the web, and so on and on and on.
Every one of those connections requires a minimal exchange of data that is typically logged for some periods of time. It is thoroughly reasonable to design Windows 10 in such a way that it can quickly identify defects and allow the engineers responsible for the product to fix those defects.