Angels have the Phone Box
LAPS, the cloudfare could be something your ISP are using (I can't say), but the Windows updates, and specifically Defender update failures are not a result of your ISP, so there's still something "not right" with your system.
Without knowing what was initially found to have infected your system in the first place, it's hard to say, but I will tell you this: a couple months ago someone brought me a computer and some USB flash drives to "fix", as they couldn't locate their files on them anymore. Turned out these USB drives were infected with a bunch of trojans, some viruses & malware and a worm. One infection in particular created a hidden partition on the flash drives, then hid all the user files in it, and proceeded to do it's dirty work. The worm hit 2 of my systems, as I neglected to shut them down first, and the infected system was on my regular network, not my guest network (my bad - was not expecting this!). The worm spread via LAN to my 2 computers and affected my internet connections, cutting me off intermittently, preventing certain AV and malware-fighting sites from loading, and basically wreaking havoc. Had to restore them both using Macrium images, and all was well. The thing is, your Defender updates aren't working and that tells me something is still needing to be fixed.
Did you try the WU troubleshooting in post #50 yet?
What are you thoughts on a clean install?