There's nothing wrong with your Windows, most probably nothing corrupted. I think you are in so called Audit Mode in which Windows by default always signs in with the built-in admin account. In Audit Mode the only Windows UWP app working is Settings, all others (Edge, Photos, Mail, Weather, People and so on) can't be used, no new user accounts can be created using Settings > Accounts.
Windows remains in Audit Mode even after restart if user has not specifically told Windows to exit from Audit Mode to OOBE Mode using the Windows System Preparation Tool (Sysprep).
I think a bit theory is important now making this post quite long; if you are not interested in the boring stuff, jump to label Solution below. OK?
The solution given takes you to normal Windows operating mode with a normal local or MS user account even if you would not be stuck in Audit Mode as I suspect.
The given solution involves no risk for functionality of Windows being completely safe.
The boring stuff
Windows has four operational modes:
- OOBE Mode (Out-Of-Box Experience), also called Welcome Mode
- Uses Windows PE (Preinstallation Environment) for setting up Windows after installation
- In OOBE user sets up language and formats, can customize settings or select defauls with Express settings, sets up the initial user account and so on
- All clean installs and first boot of any preinstalled Windows go through OOBE
- Normal Mode
- The normal mode of Windows
- Windows enters normal mode when OOBE (setup) is done
- In ideal case when Windows works without any major issues user never needs to leave normal mode
- Safe Mode
- A troubleshooting mode with only the drivers and files needed for bare minimum functionality of Windows
- Audit Mode
- A special mode of Windows allowing customization of Windows install image before any user account have been created
- Audit Mode always signs in with the built-in administrator account because it is normally used when Windows have been installed but there are no user accounts created yet
- Once started, Windows remains in Audit Mode until user specifically exits it to OOBE with Sysprep
An example of using Audit Mode can be seen in this tutorial: Windows 10 Image - Customize in Audit Mode with Sysprep - Windows 10 Forums
Using the method in above tutorial I for instance always create a personalized Windows image which I then deploy to my machines instead of clean installing, customizing and installing software separately on each computer. In doing so I can customize the default user profile meaning whenever a new user account is created, it gets the defaults set by me (wallpaper, theme, screensaver, icon settings, Explorer settings, browser homepages, software and so on).
My customizations also include the OEM information seen in System properties. Easiest way to personalize this is to use Audit Mode and Sysprep. In screenshot an example about personalized OEM information, custom PC info (A), custom support info including support website link (B) and custom OEM logo (C), Finnish flag in my case:I am not sure how you have ended up in Audit Mode. Usually there are only two ways to start Windows in Audit Mode. First one is to restart from OOBE when Settings dialog (titled Get going fast) is shown:Pressing CTRL+SHIFT+F3 now instead of selecting Express or Custom settings will restart Windows in Audit Mode using the built-in administrator account before any actual user accounts have been created.
The second way to start in Audit Mode from existing Windows installation is to use either the Sysprep GUI (C:\Windows\System32\Sysprep\Sysprep.exe) selecting Enter System Audit Mode, Restart and clicking OK:... or using command %windir%\system32\sysprep\sysprep.exe /audit /reboot in an elevated command prompt.
However, it's now not important for me to know how you got there, let's get you you out from there
Solution (boot to OOBE)
1.) Browse to C:\Windows\System32\Sysprep folder, run Sysprep.exe:
2.) Select Systen Cleanup Action: Enter System Out-of-Box Experience (OOBE), select Shutdown Options: Reboot, click OK:
3.) You will see that Sysprep starts working:
4.) Audit Mode always exists to OOBE. You need now to go through it starting with selecting language, time zone and formats,
5.) If Windows has already been activated or the PC has digital entitlement, select Do this later when prompted for a product key:
6.) You must set up a user every time OOBE is run. If Audit Mode was entered from an existing Windows installation and user accounts already exist, you cannot use any existing MS or local user account here. In screenshot I have tried to use / setup user Kari but because that user already exists I am told to use another username:
That's it. You have now exited Audit Mode and are in Windows normal mode. Edge and other Windows UWP apps work as they should.