Windows 10 erroneously reporting that computer is not connected to a network or internet, when all other programs can connect. Cannot activate software or download new optional windows components:

I needed to reset my windows installation recently, since then windows does not report that it has successfully connected to networks or the internet, even though networks connect successfully and internet access over anything that isn't related to windows itself is successful. Previously I had no issues on this computer before the need to reset. This error occurs on multiple known networks.


Symptoms:

  • Wifi tray icon states 'not connected, connections are available'
  • Wireless networks show 'No Internet, Secured' when connected to, showing a disconnect button but no 'connected' notification
  • Network and sharing center reports 'you are not connected to any active networks
  • Settings App reports network status as 'not connected'
  • Cannot auto-discover exchange settings when setting up Outlook 2013
  • Cannot properly enable Bash on Ubuntu on Windows, as developer mode will not enable because it cannot detect a connection
  • Ping and Tracert on cmd give expected results
  • Internet is accessible in Firefox, Chatzilla, Chrome, Internet Explorer and Edge browsers
  • Technicium MAC address changer reports that the connection is 'up, operational' at 144 mbps
  • Linux Mint 17.1 partition wireless functions normally

Troubleshooting steps that I have tried (that I can remember):

  • Using different wireless networks
  • Releasing and renewing IP addresses
  • Changing DNS from auto-detect to 8.8.8.8 and 4.2.2.3
  • Reinstalling all network device drivers
  • Disabling IPv4 and disabling IPv6
  • Disabling and enabling: client for microsoft networks, file and printer sharing for microsoft networks, QoS pack scheduler, Microsoft LLDP protocol driver, link-layer topology discovery responder, link-layer topology discovery mapper I/O driver
  • Changing advanced diver properties (such as 802.1 1m channel width for example)
  • Resetting internet explorer settings under the advanced tab of internet properties
  • Changing MAC address
  • Network Reset

Computer specs:

  • Model: Toshiba Satellite P850
  • Proc: i7-3630QM
  • Memory: 8GB
  • Wifi card: Intel Centrino Wireless N-2230
  • Windows 10 Pro, upgraded from Windows 7 pro during the upgrade offer, and since reset to fix an unrelated issue.

An ipconfig/all dump:

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : Saoirse
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . :
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : pentangle-connect.local

Ethernet adapter Ethernet:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : B8-88-E3-19-C3-73
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes

Ethernet adapter VirtualBox Host-Only Network:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : VirtualBox Host-Only Ethernet Adapter
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 0A-00-27-00-00-0E
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::91c8:6720:e959:2f7a%14(Preferred)
IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.10.1(Preferred)
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
DHCPv6 IAID . . . . . . . . . . . : 688521255
DHCPv6 Client DUID. . . . . . . . : 00-01-00-01-1F-C5-D9-8A-02-7C-38-32-45-30
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : fec0:0:0:ffff::1%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%1
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Enabled

Wireless LAN adapter Wi-Fi:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : pentangle-connect.local
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Intel(R) Centrino(R) Wireless-N 2230
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 02-1E-D3-26-86-DF
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:470:1f1d:2ea:5d7:42f1:b7bf:21cc(Preferred)
Temporary IPv6 Address. . . . . . : 2001:470:1f1d:2ea:10ef:fe79:d18c:d34e(Preferred)
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::5d7:42f1:b7bf:21cc%22(Preferred)
IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.20.70(Preferred)
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : 22 November 2016 11:49:20
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : 30 November 2016 11:49:20
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : fe80::20c:29ff:fe13:b30c%22
192.168.20.1
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.20.7
DHCPv6 IAID . . . . . . . . . . . : 377792200
DHCPv6 Client DUID. . . . . . . . : 00-01-00-01-1F-C5-D9-8A-02-7C-38-32-45-30
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.20.7
192.168.21.36
192.168.21.37
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Enabled

Tunnel adapter isatap.{AB4B0098-480B-4C1C-A8E2-A35F4D0E443F}:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Microsoft ISATAP Adapter
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-E0
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes

Tunnel adapter isatap.pentangle-connect.local:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : pentangle-connect.local
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Microsoft ISATAP Adapter #2
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-E0
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes