Launching OneDrive from Start > All apps > OneDrive first time when no OneDrive personal or business accounts are set up, it expects you to sign in to a personal OneDrive with a Microsoft account. An Office 365 for Business / OneDrive for Business account is a totally different thing, therefore the OneDrive setup does not accept your OneDrive for Business credentials. It clearly tells you to enter your MS account credentials:
Originally Posted by NJR73
Your O365 for Business account is not an MS account; it is instead a so called workplace account.
To install and sync OD for Business, the easiest way is to install it with Office application suite. Sign in to your O365 for Business at portal.office.com, click your avatar on top right and select View account:Select Manage installs:... and install Office suite. At the moment you can select between Office 2013 and Office 2016. OD for Business will also be installed, whichever Office version you will choose..
If you do not want to or need to install the Office suite, sign first in to OneDrive Personal with your personal MS account if you have one or want to create one. When done and personal OD is set up if it is needed, open the Run dialog with WIN+R and enter the following command:
OneDrive setup opens once again but this time you can clearly see that instead of asking your MS account credentials, it is now asking your workplace (your O365 for Business) account credentials. Now you can set up OD for Business with your O365 for Business account:From now on you will see both OneDrives, the OD for Business as OneDrive - YourDomain, and your private OD as OneDrive - Personal: