It looks like the system corruption of dism and sfc goes well beyond my expertise (which isn't much at all!)

3 things I recommend to do in order
1. Run MemTest86+
2. Run an in-place upgrade, tutorial: Repair Install Windows 10 with an In-place Upgrade - Windows 10 Forums
3. Update the BIOS, P8Z68-V PRO/GEN3 | Motherboards | ASUS Global

If MemTest86+ detects any errors then an in-place upgrade could be interrupted due to faulty memory or slots what could cause a more unstable system which is why MemTest86+ currently has priority
If the memory test gives zero errors, an in-place upgrade should resolve the system corruption, or at least lessen it a lot where dism and sfc should then be able to completely remove the corruption.

Your BIOS dates 2012, updating could improve the system stability.